Assad the Syrian dictator used chemical weapons 9 times without one response from trump & he even informed the russians of the pending strike therefore assad was told & he evacuated the air base causing this strike to be a 70 million dollar fireworks show. With trump’s approval ratings at historic lows he purported this attack for political reasons only. His new budget & even more devastating new & frightening healthcare act to replace obamacare will undoubtedly result in american deaths & many will be children. He could care less about syrian casualties. Don’t fall for his fake sincerity because there is none. Assad needs to be killed for what he’s done but not by trump whom is under FBI & CIA investigation that will probably result in impeachment & imprisonment for treason. This should be resolved before he harms America further. He has no problem seeing Americans coming home in body bags as long as it furthers his illegal agenda. Syria is a nightmare with many factions fighting for control, it is unwinnable. Trump blocks Syrian war refugees from entering our country but is pretending to care about them now, but still has the same policy. Well I could has summed this article up with a short phrase. “Thanks for the war dickhead”
Video games that are considered first person shooters are a popular video game genre. I’ve played video games in many forms for the majority of my life; much of my recent playing is based on first person games. Due to controversial events like public / school shootings the topic of violence and video games continues to influence debate and psychological research.
Read Part 1 of our series.
Although my history of video game usage is anecdotal recent research has concluded that video games like first person shooters may have the potential to ,”increase skill, including potential lethal weapon use”. Participants who played a videogame with a pistol shaped controller were 33% more likely to shoot a mannequin with a real gun and 99% more likely to shoot the mannequin in the head (Gamboa, 2012). It seems behaviorism may come into play here as it could be stated the visual reinforcements that accompany lethal shots in game may condition similar behaviors in real life shooting scenarios. How many of you play video games where the sole objective is to fire or propel something into an object or person? Could games like Angry Birds really help in understanding physics? Could sports games on the Wii or Xbox Kinect increase skill in the actual sport?
A second article argues that first person shooter games are being used as training and recruitment. Some argue that first person shooters and flight simulators as training may be used as a type of manipulation or desensitization in preparation for killing another individual. The continued reward of the simulation may make the decision to enlist easier as well as influence behavior and decision making during a lethal event like war.
According to Richard Williams, Technical Director of the US Army’s Systems Integration Modeling and Simulation, “The game mechanics of First Person Shooters are now being implemented to create highly specific tutorials that allow recruits to better understand what they were doing, and who they were fighting” (Voakes, 2012). Recent research by Gackenbach, J., Ellerman, E., & Hall, C. (2011) surveyed 335 military personnel, both active and inactive, the research concluded that after filling out an Emotional Reactivity and Numbing Scale as well as Trauma Inventory it was shown that those who reported a high degree of video game play showed, “less threat and war content in their military dreams than the low-end group” (Gackenbach, 2011).
Both of these news articles could be considered a media psychology issue as they both are concerned with videos games and the potential influence on real world decision making, behavior, emotion and skill. I feel that these simulations may influence decision making and skills as the recruits are given visual rewards and points during the simulations for completing tasks. I think the second article is more directly a media psychology issue, it raises the question of how video games like first person shooters may be desensitizing or manipulating perceptions concerning killing another individual, or completing military tasks. The focus is not video game realism or content itself, and also not solely covering desensitization in the military. These articles are concerned with how the media may be influencing real life behaviors, perceptions, decision making and skill.
By Jim Crenshaw Dec. 12 2015
Gackenbach, J., Ellerman, E., & Hall, C. (2011). Video game play as nightmare protection: A preliminary inquiry with military gamers. Dreaming, 21(4), 221-245. doi:10.1037/a0024972
Gamboa, C. (2012, May 21). Violent video games turning gamers into deadly shooters. Retrieved from potential of video games to teach or increase skills, including potentially lethal weapon use.”
Voakes, G. (2012, June 30). How do video games and modern military influence each other?. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/gregvoakes/2012/05/30/how-do-video-games-and-modern-military-influence-each-other/
As a lifelong “gamer” I know that my opinion about media violence influencing societal violence is somewhat biased. Although this may be true I find it very interesting that the majority of the peer-reviewed articles concerning the influence of media violence are correlational in nature. I’ve heard too many times in my educational career that a correlation does not imply causation, I think as critical thinkers we need to realize that there may be a bias behind the research concerning media violence. I am completely against the assertion that media violence causes violent behavior, much of the research I did find failed to report a conclusive operational definition of violence.
Read Part 2 of our research series.
I had a very hard time finding any articles that have been able to show that after manipulating independent and dependent variables media violence was a statistically significant factor in influencing violent behavior. According to Harris (2010) hundreds of studies have shown some negative psychological effects of media violence, much of these studies were tested in a laboratory and were short term studies. I feel this fact does not allow us to assert that media violence can influence real-world violent behavior, besides the measurements for these conclusions are based on attitudinal reports.
Studies from 1977 and 1984 are in no way related to changes in media we see today. The recent research in this chapter also points to research in 2003 but again it is correlational in nature, furthermore they obtained data on the violent TV they watched. Are we to assume that their definition of violence fully explains violent behavior in itself? Is tapping my pencil or typing on my keyboard too hard considered violence, I feel that virtually any behavior can be labeled violent. Even in my response to this discussion, my feelings about this topic could in some way be construed as violent. I have a very hard time thinking that we are all passive zombies to media, not every individual will be influenced by media or violent media in the same.
Although Harris (2009) states that violent media does have several negative behavioral and attitudinal effects, especially with modeling and desensitization he also states that the effects, “are not uniform and frequently are moderated by others variables” (Harris, 2009). Harris goes on to explain that, “no one but the most strident media bashers seriously argue that violence in media are to blame for all societal violence”. As a scholar practitioner I am more inclined to believe in peer-reviewed research and not rely on “media bashers” for conclusive evidence that media violence causes violent behavior. Research by Ferguson (2010) concluded that there was no link between violent video games and aggressive behavior, the results actually suggested that violent video games reduced depression and hostile feelings through mood management.
Recent research has argued that many of the negative effects of violent are exaggerated by the scientific community (Ferguson, 2010). I feel that we should not assume many of the claims concerning the effects violent media as being statistically significant, reliable or valid. Additional research by Ferguson (2010) has found that many studies are based on unpublished studies; this simple fact shows us that we should not assume every study about violent media is reliable or valid. I think it’s important to note that increases in the use of violent video games have actually been correlated with dramatic decreases in youth violence (r=-.95, an almost perfect correlation), I’m again aware that correlation does not imply causality but this relationship is far stronger than the reported r=.15 estimate of Anderson (2004) who reported that violent video games imply outward violent behavior. The meta-analysis by Anderson (2004) found only weak effects and much of their research overestimated and over interpreted the influence of violent video games on aggression.
Recent research by Ivory (2007) concluded that although violent video games,” increased players’ sense of presence, feelings of involvement, and arousal” they did not significantly affect aggressive thoughts or feelings. Additionally, longitudinal research by Williams (2005) examined changes in aggressive cognitions and behavior in individuals who played violent video games. The results of the study did not support the assertion that a violent game usage causes increases in real-world aggression. Lastly, research by Wei (2007) suggests that the link between aggression and exposure to violent video games was non-significant, concluding that that playing violent video games better explains attitudinal outcomes as opposed to overt violent behavior. I hope this has made you think critically about how media violence “causes” violent behavior.
By Jim Crenshaw
Anderson, C. (2004). An update on the effects of playing violent video
games. Journal of Adolescence, 27, 113–122.
Ferguson, C. J., & Rueda, S. M. (2010). The Hitman study: Violent video game exposure effects on
aggressive behavior, hostile feelings, and depression. European Psychologist, 15(2), 99-108.
Ferguson, C. J., & Kilburn, J. (2010). Much ado about nothing: The misestimation and overinterpretation
of violent video game effects in Eastern and Western nations: Comment on Anderson et al.
(2010). Psychological Bulletin, 136(2), 174-178. doi:10.1037/a0018566
Ferguson, C. J. (2010). Blazing angels or resident evil? Can violent video games be a force for
good?. Review Of General Psychology,14(2), 68-81. doi:10.1037/a0018941
Harris, R.J. (2009). A cognitive psychology of mass communication (5th ed.). New York: Routledge.
Ivory, J. D., & Kalyanaraman, S. (2007). The effects of technological advancement and violent content in
video games on players’ feelings of presence, involvement, physiological arousal, and
aggression. Journal Of Communication, 57(3), 532-555. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2007.00356.x
Wei, R. (2007). Effects of playing violent videogames on Chinese adolescents’ pro-violence attitudes,
attitudes toward others, and aggressive behavior. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 10(3), 371-380.
Williams, D., & Skoric, M. (2005). Internet Fantasy Violence: A Test of Aggression in an Online
Game. Communication Monographs,72(2), 217-233. doi:10.1080/03637750500111781